Saturday, May 23, 2020

Benefits Of Promoting Growing Your Own Food And Its...

Currently, in the Denver Metro area, there are more than 40 school-based community gardens. These are projects on a much smaller scale than what I’m proposing. The benefits of teaching youth the importance of growing your own food and its nutritional value would have a positive effect for decades to come. The Colorado School of Public Health has data on Denver Urban Garden efforts and how it has led to a tangible, positive change in the community’s health and food security. School-based community gardens help to create a bridge between the school and the surrounding community by offering space for gardening to students, parents, teachers and neighbors. Teachers could even have an outdoor classroom where students are given the opportunity†¦show more content†¦This program could be partnered with the Denver Public Schools, Denver Urban Gardens, Learning Landscapes, and Slow Food Denver. Let’s start with the guidelines. School and educational based gardens provide spaces for experimental hands on education. This also allows for incorporating the full cycle of learning associated with healthy food; from growing, to nutrition, and then to cooking. The school gardening program would be designed to involve teachers and certain primary curriculums in subjects such as economics, social studies, and science. This in turn would create respect for diversity and also promote self-growth. The primary purpose would always be education. Having the school and the garden be a cohesive program that would be included in the day-to-day culture of school would promote sustainability with the administration, neighborhood volunteers, and parents who are all essential to the function of this plan. Stewardship opportunities for the students could be provided through the outdoor classroom by utilizing the grounds of the school site. Outdoor classrooms are engaging spaces for children; it helps them develop both aShow MoreRelatedObesity And Weight Loss And Obesity1673 Words   |  7 Pagesdrinks, high calorie snacks, and promoting exercise on a daily basis. Obesity is a worldwide condition that has mental, physical, and social effects on individuals that are diagnosed with the condition. In this paper the effectiveness of cognitive behavioral therapy, mindfulness, and motivational interviewing on individuals with obesity will be explored and discussed. For many young and older adults treating obesity is not an easy task to accomplish on your own which leads to yo-yo diets and fadRead MoreNutrition Is Essential For The Development Of Physical And Cognitive Health1394 Words   |  6 Pagesâ€Å"Ministry of Food†? The ministry of food was introduced in 1942 by the British government to advocate eating nutritious food’s during the time of WW2, when there was sparsity of crops and fresh produce, due to the war effort. It also educated people on ways to feed their families healthy food on a budget. However more recently in 2008, Jamie has reintroduced this concept of a â€Å"national network of food,† by spreading awareness and reminding people of the influence nourishing food can have on ourRead MoreChildren Need a Healthy Breakfast1878 Words   |  7 PagesHealthy Meal in the Morning affects Children America is often referred to as the most developed country worldwide where everything is easily accessible to residents. Recent research has shown that 50 million Americans lack access to safe and nutritious food in the home, 17 million of which are children. A perfect example of this can be seen in the recent film, â€Å"A Place at the Table† where. Rosie, an 8 year old girl living in Colorado expressed the difficulty that she finds in concentrating in schoolRead More The Changing Culture of Food and Society Essay1557 Words   |  7 Pagesreasons other than biological necessity. Food is [therefore] about pleasure, community, family and spirituality, our relationship to the natural world, and about expressing our identity† (p. 8); and plays an important role on why we form a relationship with food. I can relate with Pollan’s ideology on the basis of my own cultural experience within the Black communities, and how life formed associations with food has shaped my viewpoint on health and wellness. Food and society are the key links in whichRead MoreJack Link’s Beef Jerky Going Hip and Healthy Essay1280 Words   |  6 PagesLink’s Beef Jerky Going Hip and Healthy Introduction The Jack Link’s Beef Jerky Company, founded in the 1880’s, is a producer of dried meat snacks that prides itself in the distribution of convenient, high-quality snack foods. Jack Link’s Beef Jerky is the fastest growing meat snack manufacturer in the world and sells more than 100 different meat snack products in more than forty countries. According to the company’s mission statement, this family-run business basis its principles and traditionsRead MoreDeveloping Eating Habits During School Lunches1671 Words   |  7 Pagesthe possibility of undertaking numerous activities throughout the day as well as ameliorating their own knowledge in school extracurricular activities. Therefore, while child obesity is a growing concern among elementary schools, parents should take part responsibility by encouraging better eating habits. If parents provide healthy home lunches, it will prevent unhealthy lifestyles among their own children. In our modern day public elementary schools, the lack of nutrition during school lunches hasRead More Componants Of Life Essay1782 Words   |  8 Pages Creating and adhering to a nutritional plan could be the single most important thing you do in your life. A nutritional plan does not only mean covering your physical health, but your emotional and spiritual health as well. Surviving well on a healthy nutritious diet will only go so far without the spiritual nutrients of love, happiness, sorrow and pain. â€Å"You are what you eat†, goes a famous saying. If that were truly the case, then a lot of Americans would appear to be unhealthy, chemically treatedRead MoreDifferent Aspects Of School Involvement Towards Health And Wellness Essay2072 Words   |  9 Pagesstudents. Research argues that health promoting lifestyle activities maintain or improve individual’s health and wellness (reference). Researchers suggest that health promotion includes a process of empowerment of the community to act on the improvement of their life and health qualities (research) A closer look into a healthy lifestyle begins at childhood. Healthy lunches promote physical activity and healthy diets. School lunches need to have nutritional value and a well-balanced nutrition scaleRead MoreEvolution of Natural Foods: Personal Point of View1971 Words   |  8 Pagesâ€Å"natural† food, and to ponder the question of how the quality of our food will be in the future and the health concerns. Th e area I will be focusing on is the Southern United States, Central and South America. In the beginning, it is understood that humans needed to survive by eating. They gathered wild vegetables, and hunted animals for meat. As there became more humans, the philosophy for trading one good for another began to lower the demand of having to hunt or gather on your own. It is hardRead MoreWhy Do Companies Promote Unhealthy Foods?3184 Words   |  13 PagesProfessor McLaughlin Why Do Companies Promote Unhealthy Foods? Junk food has been a part of America’s history since the 1900s and its desire will be growing throughout the future. Junk food can is counted as any unhealthy food which includes: cookies chips cakes and fast food. The first ever fast food restaurant opened in 1947 and more and more are blossoming throughout the country. With this explosion of fast food and junk food consumers have been wondering why companies advertise this horrible

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Tuesdays With Morrie Words Of Wisdom - 1334 Words

Tuesdays with Morrie: â€Å"Words of Wisdom† â€Å"The value of life lies not in the length of days, but in the use we make of them†¦ whether you find satisfaction in life depends not on your tale of years, but on your will† (Michel De Montigne). Morrie would agree with this statement, because Morrie believes that everyone can live a great life no matter how many days they may have left. No one knows the days they exactly have left in their life. In life people should make the best of it and not worry about how much time they may have left to live, they should focus on making things better for themselves and others. They should also impact and do the right thing and be a great example in others lives. Morrie teaches people to love life through accepting death, valuing money less and forgiving others. First, Morrie teaches people to live life through accepting death. Morrie’s opinion on death is that everybody dies at some point in their life; it will come s ome day. Learning to accept it instead of dwelling on it will make life more enjoyable. Dwelling on dying only makes it tougher to focus on the things that matter before it is too late to say goodbye. Death can happen at any point in life, not a single person knows the given time they will pass.. â€Å"Once you learn how to die, you learn how to live† (Albom 84). My belief is that when someone is focusing on life ending for them, they are prone to not enjoy their last days. When someone comes to realization that death will be comingShow MoreRelatedTuesdays With Morrie, By Mitch Albom1638 Words   |  7 Pages Throughout the novel Tuesdays With Morrie, the author, Mitch Albom, reflects on his Tuesday meetings with his old professor, now consumed with a terminal illness, and, using many rhetorical choices, reveals â€Å"The Meaning of Life,† which they discussed profusely and divided into several categories. Topics such as Death, Emotions, Aging, Money, Forgiveness, an d more are all discussed in their weekly conferences, Morrie passing on his wisdom to one of his favorite students. And Albom, writing aboutRead MoreTuesdays With Morrie Film Analysis949 Words   |  4 PagesThe film Tuesdays with Morrie ( TWM) has shaped my understanding of the consequences of change through the main themes of change in perspective, change in relationship power dynamics, Mitch’s increased commitment and the ripple effect that change causes. The representation of mitchs perspective throughout Tuesdays with Morrie, has shifted my understanding of the consequences of change through the importance of various relationships Mitch has developed and the importance of an alternative perspectiveRead MoreWisdom of Realization1746 Words   |  7 Pages15 The wisdom of realization One can say that wisdom can truly be found through a realization in one own life and even through suffering. In Shakespeare’s â€Å"King Lear† and Mitch Albom’s â€Å"Tuesdays with Morrie†, we see that both main characters Morrie Schwartz and King Lear gain wisdom through realizations of certain aspects of life and through their own personal sufferings. Both Morrie and Lear gain wisdom firstly through suffering. Morrie gains wisdom through suffering physicallyRead MoreTuesdays with Morrie Essay1333 Words   |  6 PagesCassandra Stephens December 3, 2012 Psy. 120- Book Review Professor Dr. Priebe Summary: Tuesdays with Morrie, was based on a true story about friendship and lessons learned. It’s about a sports writer, Mitch and former sociology professor, Morrie, who is in his last days of life after being diagnosed with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and their rekindled relationship after many years. They first met on the campus grounds at Brandeis University. This never forgotten relationship wasRead MoreCritical Analysis Of Tuesdays With Morrie999 Words   |  4 PagesTuesdays with Morrie Synthesis and Analysis Tuesdays with Morrie is a memoir written by Mitch Albom that documents his last thesis with his old college sociology professor, Morrie Schwartz. The story captures the compassion and wisdom that Morrie represents, but as he slowly contracts a disease known as ALS, his time is about to run out. It isn’t until 16 years later when Mitch sees his old professor being interviewed on ABC’s Nightline that this begins to change. Mitch was a student to Morrie SchwartzRead MoreThe Meaning Of Life In Tuesdays With Morrie By Mitch Albom1078 Words   |  5 Pagesand has come to terms with his disease and upcoming death. In the story â€Å"Tuesdays with Morrie† by Mitch Albom, the protagonist Morrie Schwartz impacts thousands of lives. Morrie Schwartz, a sociology professor who developed ALS, feels the need to share his words of wisdom on the meaning of life through taking pride in the way he has lived, making use of his experiences, and being optimistic about his upcoming death. Morrie was an inspiration for many as he took pride in the way he lived his lifeRead More Dealing With Death Essay1434 Words   |  6 Pagespicture of life has come into focus. If an individual suddenly becomes aware that their time on earth is coming to a close or is suddenly thrust into a meaningful relationship with someone trying to deal with such a phenomenon, as is the case in Tuesdays With Morrie, a contemporary book written by the popular sports journalist Mitch Albom, serious personal change can occur as a result. In fact, a person is only able to reach such a tangible state of enlightenment and understanding of the world around themRead MoreTuesdays With Morrie Essay1111 Words   |  5 Pagesthings such as important people, mistakes you made, things left undone or words left unsaid guilt, regret etc. The aim of this story Tuesdays With Morrie, by Mitch Albom is to encourage the individual to live a better life why you have time, in order to avoid some of those later things such as guilt and regret. We learn this concept of living through the wisdom of one of Mitch Alboms old teachers, Morrie Schwartz, who is suffering from ALS knowing he doesnt have much time leftRead MoreSummary Of Tuesdays With Morrie By Mitch Albom1305 Words   |  6 PagesFunerals have been a long running tradition in many cultures and societies after a loved one has passed. In the book â€Å"Tuesdays with Morrie†, by Mitch Albom, the main character, Morrie, chose to have a living funeral after receiving the news that he had ALS. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease, is a nervous system disease that weakens muscles and impacts a lot of physical functions finally proceeding to death. A living funeral is held before the person has passed, soRead MoreFriday s With Morrie By Mitch Albom Essay1701 Words   |  7 PagesTuesday’s with Morrie by Mitch Albom is a wonderful book that focuses on the struggle life and how to lead through them. Morrie, once a lively professor at Brandeis University, now suffers from ALS. This incurable disease begins to suck the ability t o do the things he loves, and soon confines him to the quiet rooms of his house. Mitch, a favorite student of his, comes back upon hearing the news and the two continue to discuss the true meanings of life and how to effectively uphold one’s character

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Richard Branson †Paper Free Essays

Hence, Brannon has very strong leader-member relations. Second, task structure must be analyzed In a course of four 1. Can a decision be demonstrated as correct? Steps: 2. We will write a custom essay sample on Richard Branson – Paper or any similar topic only for you Order Now Are the requirements of the task understood by everyone? 3. Is there more than one way to accomplish the task? 4. Is there more than one correct solution? Based on the environment that Brannon has created at Virgin, assumptions can be made about situational traits. Brannon makes sure that he acknowledges his employees’ hard work. That means when a decision Is correct, the appropriate staff ill be praised for making the correct decision. Brannon also encourages his management to continue to challenge employees to come up with new creative ideas to attack the present situation. This means not only will employees understand the task requirements, but they will also be encouraged to find alternate ways to accomplish the task as well as alternate solutions. Using the Graph below, when Richard Brannon keeps a situation at moderate control his effectiveness as a leader and fearlessness as a leader Is maximized. If you have a demoralized staff your company will soon disappear† (Management Skills 1: leadership and motivation). Motivation is the process that accounts for an individual’s intensity, direction and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal. Richard Brannon has never lacked self motivation as a result of continuously creating and seeking new challenges to overcome. Brannon transcends his natural self motivation into his unique, hands off management style which emphasizes employee Job happiness and comfortable relationships. Self motivation was never an issue in Abrasion’s career as an entrepreneur and business man. From starting Student magazine at age 16 to creating a dominant rower in the recording industry, Brannon always had a desire to seek out new challenges. This may have rooted from his parents because they did not view his learning troubles as a limitation and encouraged him to find and pursue his venture, Student Magazine, his convictions were the underlying motivator. Brannon wanted people to hear his views and was willing to exude hard work in order to assure this happened. Brannon soon began to feel a sense of enjoyment and purpose–a major theme in all of Abrasion’s motivation techniques– which transitioned his efforts into the music and recording business. Of course, love and passion is not always a the best self motivator if success is never attained. Thus, Abrasion’s second key to self motivation is moving forward, rather than moving back. For example, in the wake of the U. KS recession of the sass’s Brannon had a choice to consolidate or keep growing. In response Brannon bought two night clubs and invested profits back into his music industry in order to create success and limit losses. The third key for Brannon was to always have goals. Once current goals are attained, new goals must be formed. This is demonstrated as Abrasion’s goals were reddened from creating one of the world’s most respected brand to investing in large-scale philanthropic endeavors such as the creation of Virgin Unite. Finally, perhaps the most appropriate rule to Abrasion’s success: â€Å"Screw it. Let’s do it† (Brannon)! When one man owns a record company, a soft drink company, and is pursuing space tourism there self motivation must never be deficient. Abrasion’s self motivation is an extension of how he motivates others. Despite running such an extensive array of companies, he takes on a very â€Å"hands-off,† management style. He says, â€Å"l don’t look at any figures or projections, if he [Patrick Ezekiel] wants to do it that’s fine by me. That’s very much the approach we take, there’s a lot of trust† (Management Skills 1: leadership and motivation). The trust he displays in his management demonstrates that Brannon is a Theory Y manager. Theory Y managers assume employees can view work as being natural behavior and are committed to the objective. They tend to be less controlling and have a more hands-off approach. As a result, Brannon believes that his management can do their Jobs to the best of their ability without his constant supervision. In addition, Brannon has a knack for surrounding himself with a very capable staff and creating a work environment in which they thrive. † Although Brannon is â€Å"hands-off,† he does create a particular environment that is very affective in motivating his employees. He does this by participating in lots of direct personal communication with his employees. Even though he is a corporate leader, he displays compassion for all employees in the Virgin family and pushes them to become leaders themselves. An example of this is Abrasion’s involvement in public relations. Whether its extreme stunts or press leases, Brannon sets aside 25% of his time for public relations. He explains, â€Å"If your staff works enormously hard to create something they are proud of, it’s foolish if you don’t let the world know about it. This social involvement gives his employees the impression that Brannon greatly appreciates his employees’ success and hard work. Certainly an employee will be more motivated to work extremely hard for Brannon and Virgin, if Brannon is doing the same for that employee. Analyzing Abrasion’s motivational techniques more closely, Mascots Needs Pyramid comes to mind. Brannon looks past physical needs and safet y needs, or at least assumes these will be taken care of. Instead, Brannon focuses his efforts most on social and esteem needs. For example, Virgin attempts to fulfill employees’ social needs by holding a party employees, whether they are security guards or executives. This not only gives employees a chance to associate socially outside of a work environment, but also links employees regardless of social status. He also targets esteem needs. According to Richard Brannon, â€Å"Junior people are as important as senior employees. Staff should e praised, not criticized they know when they have done something wrong† (Management Skills 1: leadership and motivation). How to cite Richard Branson – Paper, Papers

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Mutual Gain Approach to Bargaining

Question: Discuss about theMutual Gain Approach to Bargaining. Answer: Introduction: Companies have their own terms and conditions, at times, which may be dissatisfying to the employees thereby consequently affecting their performances. An effective tool, which allows the employer and the employees to settle dispute, is the method of collective bargaining using the technique of mutual gain approach. So collective bargaining is collective approach of negotiation in between the employees represented by the trade union to which the employees belong and the employer of the respective firm, so briefly collective bargaining is the outcome of negotiation(Carrell Heavrin, 2013). Mutual approach being collaborative is 'Win-Win' approach, where the both the parties should have a shared understanding of the complexity and the scope of the project. It involves a five step principles: Identify interest, consider all options, Develop criteria, understand your alternatives, and Build relationships . Saturn partnership is a separate wholly owned subsidiary corporation of general motors. It offers an excellent example of mutual gains approach to workplace conflict. It incorporates the tactics of mixed bargaining along with integrative problem solving, one such conflict occurred in the year 1991. In Saturn organization the union leaders give substantive expertise and an independent view to a problem, they increase the value by incrementing the quality of decision making in several joint committees to strategic action plan, where union leaders speak up directly to confront their problems. In Saturn organizations there are many instances of conflicts and their resolutions through partnership, here the problems are clear cut, bilateral and labor versus management conflicts. Two undoubted form oforganizations governance system is its traditional form of labor management conflict resolution and problem solving against the traditional decision making. Therefore,this is what makes the Sat urn unique for its incredible and nevertheless strategic method of conflict resolution (Cornette, 2016). Now, the BC ministry of social services and housing which is renowned for confronted approach to resolve labor related issues. In the year 1994, an effective measure to utilize tax payer monies in a better manner, the BC government agreed for a partnership which resulted in mutual gain approach in workplace problem resolution. They employed a five-step problem solving strategy for both the parties to examine the current relation issues and create schemes to foster changes. Both participants had a lot more in common than they originally imagined. It actually was a strategy to resolve issues from win loose to cooperative decision making for the problem solution. Considering the Canadian case of the Northern Telecom and communication, the mutual bargaining process was deployed by the company in order to prevent the closure of the plant and through this process, the company was able to pass the resolution and avoid the plant closure. The mutual bargaining approach employed the use of the negotiation process. The BC ministry of social services and the Saturn organization also followed the mutual approach to bargaining to resolve the matter as against the traditional decision making. Reference: Carrell, M. R., Heavrin, C. (2013). Labor relations and collective bargaining. Cornette, G. (2016). Saturn: Re-engineering the.Teamwork in the Automobile Industry: Radical Change or Passing Fashion?, 85. Rubin, J. Z., Brown, B. R. (2013).The social psychology of bargaining and negotiation. Elsevier.

Monday, March 23, 2020

Dead Man’s Cell Phone Essay Example

Dead Man’s Cell Phone Essay Name: Course: Instructor: Date: We will write a custom essay sample on Dead Man’s Cell Phone specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Dead Man’s Cell Phone specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Dead Man’s Cell Phone specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer Dead Man’s Cell Phone What does the â€Å"Cell Phone† represent to each character? Why is it the â€Å"Cell Phone† important to the play? How does it help us understand the themes of the play? Be specific. Use examples from the play to support your answer. Essentially the cell phone is used as an illustration of the changing generation and the transition into a digital age. The actors illustrate the impact of technology and more so the effects of the use of the mobile in the lives of people and more in society. In addition, the cell phone is used variedly to illustrate different meanings to the characters. The moral theme of the story behind the ownership of the cell phone is the importance and secretive lives led by people in society by the mere use of the cell phone. The importance of the cell phone in the life of the dead man could be termed as astronomical in terms of the operations that he maintains using his cell phone. He manages to operate an illegal trade, manage and maintain a mistress as well as cater for his family using the mobile phone. The use of the cell phone is used to illustrate the effects of technology on a personal level. This is illustrated by the increased social interactions by the owner of the cafe after acquisition of the mobile phone. This includes the interactions with the dead man’s mother, mistress, his illegal trade in body parts and his role as a husband. Thus, the cell phone could be termed as the lifeline of majority of people such as the dead man, to whom the cell phone was a lifeline for his interactions with the mistress as well as the lifeline in terms of his illegal operations as seller of illegal body parts. Jean’s role is affected by the presence of the mobile phone. This is an illustration that the mobile phone can affect people’s lives in a positive or negative manner. Jean’s life is interrupted and affected by the mobile phone given that she can engage in other social interactions with the various callers of the mobile phone. These include meeting the dead man’s widow Hermia, his mother Mrs. Gottlieb, and his mistress. Jean is left with a predicament of solving the problems left behind by the dead man. Does the play still have meaning? Why? Be Specific? Use examples from the play to support your answer. The play is highly relevant in that it provides an illustration of the problems the mark social interactions despite the efficiency provided by the use of electronic media. Additionally, the use of the mobile phone illustrates despite the ease in the method of communication society or people are unable to communicate with effectiveness due to barriers of effective interactions brought about by reduced social interactions because of busy schedules and engaging careers. The story also highlights the sincerity of people in their respective social interactions. The sincerity of communication among people is one of the highlights of the use of the cell phone. It is evident that people use cell phones as a means of masking their identities given that mobile phones limit physical communication people. In addition, the mobile phone is one of the most noteworthy technological gadgets of the modern society. It is an express illustration that the mobile phone is one of the most influential gadgets in society. It also illustrates the essence of physical social interactions and preferably communication. This is a means of ensuring sincerity in social interactions. After the demise of the owner of the cell phone, it interferes with the cafe business and slows down the business operations in the cafe. This is because the owner is nagged in talks with a variety of callers in the play. Hence, it is an illustration that the cell phone is highly engaging and an impediment in the execution of business as well as fruitful social interactions.

Friday, March 6, 2020

The Ku Klux Klan- A Brief History

The Ku Klux Klan- A Brief History The Ku Klux Klan is perhaps the most famous of all hate groups in America. Originally founded at the end of the Civil War, the Ku Klux Klan was a white supremacist group that used violence and intimidation in order to reassert white domination in the United States. The Klan's attacks were directed at Blacks, Jews, Catholics, immigrants and other minority groups. It has long been notorious for its unmistakable symbols of the KKK , the white robes and hoods, horses coverd in white clothes and the burning of large crosses at the klan's gatherings.In 1865, following the War between the States former Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest founded the original Ku Klux Klan along with five other confederate soldiers just out of uniform, in Pulaski, Tennessee. He named the group "Kuklos Klan," a mixture of Greek and Scottish meaning "family circle." The soldiers had full of ideas for their new society now that the civil war had ended.Cartoon from 1868 ("'Tis but a change of banners -...T he organization was originally social in nature, however it soon turned sinister.The different branches of the KKK, all held a common goal: to maintain the supremacy of the white race over Black Americans. White supremacy was an ideology which held that the white race was superior to all other races. It was for this reason that only WASP's White Anglo-Saxon Protestants, could belong to the Ku Klax Klan.While membership in the Klan has risen and fallen during its 130 year history, the scope of its hatred has expanded. The American Supremacist movement had four fundamental principalsThe hatred of Blacks and other minoritiesThe hatred of people with disabilities/hereditary conditionsThe hatred of JewsThe hatred of homosexualsBranches of the group sprang up across the South, and many white Southerners, frustrated over Federal Reconstruction policies, used...

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Immunolocalization of the microtubule cytoskeleton Essay

Immunolocalization of the microtubule cytoskeleton - Essay Example The most prominent methods are: Western blot, spectrophotometry, enzyme assay, immunoprecipitation and immunostaining. In immunostaining, the method used during this procedure, an antibody is used to detect a specific protein epitope. These antibodies can be monoclonal or polyclonal. Then enzymes such as horseradish peroxidase or alkaline phosphatase are commonly used to catalyse reactions that give a coloured or chemiluminescent product. Fluorescent molecules can be visualised using fluoresence microscopy. During this experiment, the distribution of the protein tubulin in normal rat kidney (NRK) cells is explored. A monoclonal antibody that is specific for the -subunit of tubulin is used. Tubulin polymerizes into long, 25-nm wide microtubules that we will visualize with tubulin antibodies. The formation and maintenance of microtubules is cold sensitive. At 4C, microtubules are destabilized and they depolymerize. At 37C, human body temperature, they remain polymerized. Photograph 1 shows cells incubated at 4 0C, while photograph 2 shows cells incubated at 37 0C. At this stage of the procedure, microtubules cannot be detected in either of the photographs. 3 separate plates are used to create the NRK cells culture. ... The coverslip is then immersed in 3.7% formaldehyde (in PBS) at room temperature. Immersion in 0.2% Triton-X 100 (in PBS) detergent at room temperature follows. To prevent the subsequent antibody from sticking non-specifically to the cells on the coverslip, the coverslips should be incubated with cell-side-up with a 100-l droplet of 3% (w/v) bovine serum albumin (BSA). The incubation is done on a piece of Parafilm in a humid Petri dish for 15 minutes. An anti-tubulin dilution is prepared with 1 part antibody + 75 parts 1% (w/v) BSA in PBS. A 200 l total of antibody is necessary for the three coverslips. This tubulin antibody is a monoclonal antibody (12G10) and recognizes the -subunit of tubulin. Then each coverslip is overlayed each with a 100-l droplet of the diluted tubulin antibody. After that, a secondary antibody with 1 + 200 in 1% (w/v) BSA in PBS is used. The coverslips are placed back into the Petri dish chamber and overlay with a 100-l droplet of secondary antibody and they are incubate for 30 minutes at 37C. Therefore, we have 3 coverslips, all treated with the secondary antibody, 2 of them are treated with the primary antibody (one of them is incubated at 37C, and the other incubated at 4C) and 1 that is not treated with the primary antibody (incubated at 37C). The coverslips then are placed back into the Petri dish chamber and are overlaid for 30 minutes at 37C with a100-l droplet of Vectastain ABC reagent. This reagent contains a complex of avidin and the enzyme horseradish peroxidase (HRP). They are washed again with PBS. The drops of DAB (diaminobenzidine; a carcinogenic compound) are applied to the coverslips and incubate at room temperature for 5 minutes. After DAB incubation,